Senin, 05 Desember 2011

Jenis - Jenis Teks dalam Bahasa Inggris

1.Descriptive Text

·       Descriptive text is a kind of a text with a purpose to give information. The context of this kind of text is the description of particular thing, animal, person, or others, for instance : our pets or a person we know well

·       The Funcion of descriptive text is to describe a particular person, place, or thing 

·          Text Organization  :
>>  Identification    : mention the special participant
Description  : mention the part, quality, and characters of subject being described.

Example :
Itonk, My Cool Cat

    I have a cat. His name is Itonk.  He has a big strong body. He also has two ears. It has smooth fur. He has four legs. He walks with pride and grace, and looks so wild. His pride, however, does not extend to her appearance, for he spends most of his time indoors watching television and growing fat.

Itonk is a finicky about visitors as shehe is about what he eats, befriending some and repelling others. Itonk does not do this to establish his territory, as many cat experts think, but to humiliate me because he is jealous of my friends. After my guests have fled, I look at the old fleabag smoozing and smilling to his self in front of the television set, and I have to forgive him for his obnoxious, but endearing, habits.

2. Narrative Text

  • Narrative text is a text which contains about story (fiction/non fiction/tales/folktales/fables/myths/epic) and its plot consists of climax of the story (complication) then followed by the resolution.
  •  The function of narrative text is to entertain or to amuse the readers or listeners about the story.
  • Text organization :
1. Orientation   >> set the scene and introduce the participants (it answers the question: who, what, when, where, and how).

2. Complication >> tells the problems of the story and how the main characters solve them.

3. Resolution   >> the crisis is revolved, fot better or worse.
4. Re-Orientation   >> the ending of the story.
5. Evaluation   >> A stepping back to evaluate the plight.

Example :
Long time ago a remote village, in central China was inhabited mainly with farmers and hunters. One day, a poor farmer lost his entire livestock to flood. He prayed hard to God for help or his family would die of starvation.

Few days later, an old man with long grey beard, passed by his house took pity on him. He gave him a goose and said “ I don’t have any expensive thing to give you and hope this goose will help you to ease your hardship.”

A week later to almost surprise the farmer found and egg in his yard. This was no ordinary egg. It was a golden egg. He was suddenly overcome with joy.
Thereafter, his livelihood had rapidly improved but the farmer had forgotten his earlier hardship. He became lazy, arrogant and spendthrift.

Strangely, the goose only laid one golden egg every six months. The greedy farmer lost his patient and slaughtered his goose thinking there were plenty of golden eggs inside its stomach.
Though he very much regretted for his foolishness, it’s already too late.

3.Report Text

·       Report text is a text which presents information about something, as it is. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis

·       The purpose of report texts is to describe the way things are such as a man-made thing, animals, and plants

·       The text organization of report texts is as follows.

1.  General Classification >> Introducing the topic of the report text such as the class or sub-class

2.  Identification >> Giving the shape/ form, parts, behavior, habitat, way of survival

Example :

Television, or TV, is one of humanity's most important means of communication. It brings pictures and sounds from around the world into millions of homes.

People with a television set can sit in their house and watch the president makes a speech or visits a foreign country. They can see a war being fought, and they can watch government leaders try to bring about peace. Through television, viewers at home can see and learn about people, places, and things in a away lands. Television even takes viewers out of this world as the astronauts explore outer space.

In addition to all these things, television brings its viewers a steady stream of programs that are designed to entertain. In fact, TV provides many more entertainment programs than any other kind of information media. The programs include action-packed dramas, light comedies, soap operas, sports events, cartoons, quizzes, variety shows and motion pictures.

More than 83 million homes in the United States - or 98% of all the country's homes - have at least one television set. On the average, a television set is in use in each home for about 6 3/4 hours each day. As a result, television has an important influence on how people spend their time, as well as on what they see and learn. After they arrive from work, they usually watch TV. Then, the importance of television is proven.


·  Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative

·  The purpose of recount text is to tell the readers what happened in the past through a sequence of events.

·  Generic Structure of Recount
   1. Orientation >> Introducing the participants, place and time
   2. Events >> Describing series of event that happened in the past
   3. Reorientation >> It is optional. Stating personal comment of the writer to the                 story

Example:          Jedi and Jada

Orientation Hai, I’m Jedi . I have a twin sister, named Jada.
Event1  We were born on August 5, 1992. We are in the eighth grade now. Jada and I do everything together. We are in the same class. We dress alike. We look the same. We always get other people confused. This really makes Jada and I laugh. and friends always get us mixed up at school. even our father has troubles telling us apart. Our mother doesn’t. She always know which twin is which. Jada and I often try to confuse her, but it has never happened.

Event 2     Mother came to the rescue, and refused to make us cut our hair. We were happy just the way we were and didn’t want to change. Our dad just shook his head. He would have to stay confused. Jada and I didn’t care.

Reorientation We knew which one was which, and that was all that mattered.

5.Discussion Text
·       Discussion text is the text that bring out a problem or issue by giving at least two points of view of the issue
·       The purpose of a discussion text is to present arguments and information from differing viewpoints.
·       The text organization
1.Statement of the issue >> often plus a preview of the main arguments

2.Arguments for >> plus supporting evidence (alternatively, argument/counter argument one point at a time)

3.Arguments against >> plus supportive evidence (alternatively, argument/counter argument one point at a time)

4.Recommendation >> summary and conclusion

Example :
National Exam in Pros and Cons
National exam becomes the hot topic in most of discussions. Though the Supreme Court has rejected an appeal by the government on the organization of the national exams, the controversy over whether it is necessary to maintain the national exams (UN) has continued. Some debates include the primary questions such as; does the quality of Indonesia education depend on the national exam? , will the quality of the Indonesian education system worsen without national exam?People, who support the national exam explain that the quality of the Indonesia education system will drop without the national exam, so they try to defend the current system.

However there are people who disagree with the opinion. Those who against this national exam kept in our high school education say that it doesn't need the national exams because the quality of education does not just depend on the national exam. Further, the national exam only measures a small portion of student’s competence in specific subjects, and does not measure students' competences throughout the semester.

In fact, the national examination can still be useful as an instrument to evaluate or detect the level of student’s cognitive competence in several subjects, on a national scale.

6. Analytical Exposition

·       An analytical exposition is a type of spoken or written text that is intended to persuade the listeners or readers that something is the case.
·       The puspose is to persuade by presenting arguments to analyze or explain ‘how’ and ‘why’
·       Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition
1.Thesis : Introduces the topic and shows speaker or   writer’s position; Outlines of the arguments are presented.
2.Arguments : It consists about Point and Elaboration Point, states the main argument Elaboration, develops and supports each point of argument
3. Conclusion : Reiteration (restatement), restates  speaker or writer’s position

Example :
The Importance of English

Thesis  I personally think that English is the world’s most important language. Why do I say that?
Argument 1  Firstly, English is an international language. It is spoken by many people all around the world, either as a first or second language.

Argument 2  Secondly, English is also the key which opens doors to scientific and technical knowledge, which is needed for the economic and political development of many countries in the world.

Argument 3  Thirdly, English is a top requirement of those seeking jobs. Applicants who master either active or passive English are more favorable than those who do not.
Conclusion  From the fact above, it is obvious that everybody needs to learn English to greet the global era.

7. Procedure Text
·       Procedure text is a text to describe how to make or doing something
·       The purpose of procedure text is to help us do a task or make something.
·       The text organization:
       1. Goal  >> the final purpose of doing the instruction
2. Materials >> ingredients, utensils, equipment to do the instructions
3. Steps >> a set of instructions to achieve the final purpose

Example :          The Hole Game
Two players, one marble per person, a hole in ground, a line (distance) to start from.
1.  You must dub (click marbles together)
2. You must check that the marbles are in good condition and are nearly worth the same value.
3. Dig a hole in the ground and draw a line, a fair distance away from the hole.
4. The first player carefully throws his or her marble towards the hole.
5. Then the second player tries to throw his or her marble closer to the hole than his or her opponent.
6. The player whose marble is closest to the hole tries to flick his/her marble into the hole. If successful, this player tries to flick his or her opponent’s marble into the hole. The person flicking the last marble into the hole wins and gets to keep both marbles.

·       News item is a type of text relating to news
·       The purpose of news item is to inform readers, listeners, or viewers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important
·       The text organizations:
1. Newsworthy events >> tells the event in a summary form
2. Background events     >> elaborates what happened, explains what caused the incident
3. Sources     >> comments by participants, witnesses, authorities, and experts involved in the event

Example :    Man Jailed for Striking RI Maid
SINGAPORE: A supervisor was jailed for two months for repeatedly striking his Indonesian maid on the head and back with a television remote control, news reports said on Thursday.
               Muhammad Shafiq Woon Abdullah admitted in a Singapore court he physically abused the woman on several occasions between Jone and Octover 2002, The Street Times said.
The magistrate’s court hear that Shafiq, 31, began striking Winarti, 22 about a month after she started working for him.
He hit her on on the head with the TV set’s remote control because he was unhappy with her work. On the occasion, he punched her on her back after accusing her of daydreaming.
S.S. Dhillon, Shafiq’s lawyer said his client lost his ‘better senses’ when he saw his daughter’s face covered as she lay in bed.
He said his client thought the maid had put the child in danger. –DPA


·       Spoof is  a text which tells factual story, happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending
·       The purpose of spoof is to tell an event with a humorous twist.
·       Text Organization :
1.  Orientation >> who were involved in the story, when, and where
2. Events >> tell what happened in chronological order
3. Twist >> provide the funniest part of the story

New Baby
     A woman is sitting at home entertaining her parents who have come around to congratulate her on the birth of their first grandchild.
     “So, when can we see the baby?”, asks the grandmother.
     “In a little while”, replies the mother.
     Some time passes. The grandparents are looking quite anxious at this point
     “So, when can we see the baby?”, asks the grandfather.
     “When the baby starts crying”, replies the mother.
     The grandparents turn to look at each other, a little perplexed and ask, “Why do we have to wait until she starts crying?!”
     The mother snaps back, “Because I put her down somewhere this morning and I can’t remember where she is!”

10. Hortatory Exposition
·       Hortatory Exposition is a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way.
·       The purpose of hortatory exposition is to persuade the reader or listener that something should or should not be case.
·       The text organization:
1.  Thesis
2. Arguments
3. Recommendations

Example :
Should Ads be banned from TV Programs?
I am writing to complain about ads on TV. There are so many ads, especially during my favorite programs. I think they should be stopped for a number of reasons.
First, ads are nuisance. They go on for a long time and there are so many. Sometimes there seems to be more ads than programs.
Second, ads are bad influence on people. They try to encourage people to buy unhealthy food like beers, soft drinks, candies and chips. In other words, they make people want things the do not really need and cannot afford.
Finally, ads play role in what programs people watch. That is because there are lots of ads in popular programs that a lot of people watch. Some program which are not so popular get stopped because they do not attract enough ads, even though those programs may be someone’s favorite.
For those reasons, I think TV stations should stop shiwing ads. They interrupt programs. They are a bad influence on people and they sometimes put a top to people’s favorite shows. I am sick od ads and now I mostly watch movie in cinema.

11. Explanation
·       Explanation is compose to describe how something forms and why something exists and happens.
·       The purpose of explanation is to explain the processes involved in the formation and working of natural or socio cultural phenomena.
·       The text organization:

1. The general statement to position the reader
2. A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs
3. Closing

Example :
Tsunamis occur when a major fault under the ocean floor suddenly slips. The displaced rock pushes water above it like a giant paddle, producing powerful water waves at the ocean surface. The ocean waves spread out from the vicinity of the earthquake source and move across the ocean until they reach the coastline, where their height increases as they reach continental shelf, the part of the Earth’s crust that slopes, or rises, from the ocean floor up to the land.

Tsunamis wash ashore with often disastrous effects such as severe flooding, loss of lives due to drowning, and damage to property.

A tsunami is a very large sea wave that is generated by a disturbance along the ocean floor. This disturbance can be an earthquake, a landslide, or a volcanic eruption. A tsunami is undetectable far out in the ocean, but once it reached shallow water, this fast-traveling wave grows very large.

12. Review Text

·       Review is an evaluation of a publication, a product or a service, such as a movie (a movie review), video game, musical composition, and etc.
·       The purpose of review text is to summarise, analyse, and respond to art works; to critique an art work or event for a public audience.
·       The Text Organization:
1.  Orientation >> background information on the text
2.Interpretative recount >> summary of an art work (including characters and plot)

3. Evaluation >> concluding statement: judgement, opinion, or recommendation.

4. Evaluative summation >> the last opinion consisting of the appraisal or punchline of the artwork being reviewed.

Example :

2012 Film Review

2012 is Roland Emmerich's film which uses the Mayan calendar and other end-of-days prophecies for their doomsday scenario. It imagines the world coming to an end in 2012.

2012 film brings off a series of wonders. The movie hits its peak early on. It starts when Cusack drives a limo through the streets of Los Angeles as freeways and skyscrapers crumble all around him from the shock of a 10.5 earthquake. The preposterous flying sequence is equally thrilling. The climax occurs aboard the giant ark, when an equipment malfunction almost threatens the entire mission.

Unfortunately, the crucial sequence is not filmed or edited with the requisite clarity. In 2012 film, Emmerich leaves us befuddled as to exactly what is happening to whom. However, Emmerich' 2012 deserves credit for offbeat casting. Cusack supplies his trademark hangdog charm. McCarthy has perhaps his best role ever as Peet's cocky. Danny Glover lends dignity to the role of the tormented president. Chiwetel Ejiofor, as the chief scientist, brings a moving sense of anguish to a stock role. Platt has fun playing the villain of the piece, and Woody Harrelson also chews the scenery as a bug-eyed radio prophet trying to warn his listeners about Armageddon.

All in one, 2012's cinematography, production design and visual effects are awards-worthy. Music also propels the movie. It presents American Idol runner-up, Adam Lambert, who provides a rousing anthem over the end credits.

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